Name: Dr. John Morrison Galbraith
Title: Associate Professor of Chemistry
Office Location: Donnelly 231A
Extension: (845) 575-3000 ext. 2264
Email: John.Galbraith@marist.edu
Degrees Held:

BA., The Colorado College

Ph.D., University of Georgia

Bio:

In 1992 I received my BA in Chemistry from the Colorado College in Colorado Springs, CO and my PhD in Physical Chemistry in 1997 from the University of Georgia in Athens, GA.  While at the University of Georgia, I worked with Professor Henry F. Schaefer III on computational studies of small molecules.  From 1997 to 1999 I held a postdoctoral position at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel working with Sason Shaik.  In Israel I began the line of research that occupies me to this day: computational studies of chemical bonding using Valence Bond theory. I held a second postdoctoral position at the University of Washington in Seattle, WA where my duties were split between teaching General Chemistry and doing Computational Chemistry research with Weston Thatcher Borden. Beginning in the Fall of 2001 I have been on the faculty at Marist College as an Assistant (2001-2007) and Associate (2007- ) professor of Chemistry.  While at Marist I have taught courses in General Chemistry, Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, and Research Methods all the while conducting research primarily with undergraduates.  I have published 24 peer reviewed articles, 7 of which were with undergraduate authors, in Journals such as The Journal of The Journal of Physical Chemistry, Molecular Physics, and Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry.  In addition, I have served as a referee for The Journal of The Journal of Physical Chemistry, The Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation, Molecular Physics, and the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund as well as serving on the editorial board of ISRN Physical Chemistry.

Awards & Honors:

Cottrell College Science Award (2006)

Faculty Recognition Award for Scholarly work (2013)

Publications:

 (undergraduate authors in bold)

1.“A Computational Determination of the Lowest Energy Electronic and Geometric States of First Row Transition Metal Oxygen Dications”, Jillian Lennartz, Eric Dumas, Lennie Ramirez, John Morrison Galbraith,  J. Theor. Chem.,  Under review.

2. “The Effect of Orbital Type and Active Space Size on Valence Bond Structure Weights and Bond Disscociation Energies” Galbraith, J. M. Mol. Phys. 2010, 108, 2551-2558.

3. “Density Functional Theory for Anions”,  Galbraith, J. M. in Molecular Quantum Mechanics: From Methylene to DNA and Beyond, Selected Papers of Henry F. Schaefer III, Bartlett, R. J.; Crawford, T. D.; Head-Gordon, M, Sherrill, C. D., Eds., Brandon’s Printing, Atlanta, 2010.

4. “A Valence Bond Study of Three-Center Four-Electron p Bonding: Electronegativity vs. Electroneutrality” DeBlase, A.; Licata, M.; Galbraith, J. M., J. Phys. Chem. A 2008, 112, 12806-12811.

5. “On the Role of d-Orbital Hybridization in the Chemistry Curriculum”, Galbraith, J. M. J. Chem. Ed. 2007, 84, 783-787.

6. “Proposed reaction mechanisms for selenium vapor generation by UV photolysis by computational methods”, Takatani, T.; Fitzgerald, N.; Galbraith, J. M., Anal. and Bioanal. Chem. 2007, 388, 859-862.

7. “A Valence Bond Description of Coordinate Covalent Bonding” Fiorillo, A. A.; Galbraith, J. Phys Chem. A 2004, 108, 5126. 

8.  "What Accounts for the Difference between Singlet Phenylphosphinidene and Singlet Phenylnitrene in Reactivity toward Ring Expansion?" Galbraith, J. M.; Gaspar, P. P.; Borden, W. T. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 11669. 

9.  “p-Bonding in Second and Third Row Molecules: Testing the strength of Linus’s Blanket.” Galbraith, J. M.; Blank, E.; Shaik, S.; Hiberty, P. C. Chem. Eur. J. 2000, 6, 2425. 

10.  “A Valence Bond Study of the Bergman Cyclization: Geometric Features, Resonance Energy, and Nucleus-Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) Values.” Galbraith, J. M.; Schreiner, P. R.; Harris, N.; Wei, W.; Wittkopp, A.; Shaik, S. Chem. Eur. J. 2000, 6, 1446.

11.  "A Valence Bond Study of the Bonding in First Row Transition Metal Hydride Cations: What Energetic Role Does Covalency Play?" Galbraith, J. M.; Shurki, A.; Shaik, S. J. Phys. Chem. 2000, 104, 1262.

12.  “Some new structures of C28” Portmann, S.; Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F.; Scuseria, G. E.; Lüthi, H. –P. Chem. Phys. Lett.1999, 301, 98. 

13.  "Isomerization Pathway of the Aluminum Monocarbonyl/Isocarbonyl Pair, AlCO/AlOC:  Evidence of a Cyclic Minimum,"  Wesolowski, S. S.; Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Chem. Phys.  1998, 108, 9398. 

14.  "Hydrogen Bridging in Molecules Containing Atoms beyond the First Row," Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Mol. Struct. (THEOCHEM).  1998, 424, 7.  Lionel Salem edition. 

15.  "NMR Chemical Shielding Surface of N-Acetyl-N'-Methylaninamide: A Density Functional Study," Sulzbach, H. M.; Vacek, G.; Schreiner, P. R.; Galbraith, J. M.; Schleyer, P. v. R.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Comp. Chem.  1997, 18, 126. 

16.  "The Elementary Reaction of Quartet Methylidyne (CH) with Methane," Kellogg, C. B.; Valeev, E.; Galbraith, J. M.; Fowler, J. F.; Schaefer, H. F. Molecular  Physics  1996, 89, 1695. 

17.  "The Monochlorine Fluorides (ClFn) and their Anions (ClFn-), n=1-7: Structures and Energetics," Van Huis, T. J.; Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F. Molecular Physics  1996, 89, 607. 

18.  "Concerning the Applicability of Density Functional Methods to Atomic and Molecular Negative Ions," Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Chem. Phys.  1996, 105, 862. 

19.  "The Nitrosyl Azide (N4O) Potential Energy Hypersurface: A High Energy-Density Boom or Bust?," Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1996, 118, 4860. 

20.  "Negative Ion Thermochemistry: the Sulfur Fluorides SFn/SFn- (n=1-7)," King, R. A.; Galbraith, J. M.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Phys. Chem. 1996, 100, 6061. 

21.  "Substituted Oxirenes (X2C2O, X = BH2, CH3, NH2, OH, F): Can They Be Made?," Fowler, J. E.; Galbraith, J. M.; Vacek, G.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1994, 116, 9311. 

22.  "Oxirene: To Be or Not To Be?,"  Vacek, G.; Galbraith, J. M.; Yamaguchi, Y; Schaefer, H. F.; Nobes, R. H.; Scott, A. P.; Radom, L. J. Phys. Chem. 1994, 98, 8660. 

23.  "Equilibrium Geometry of Isocyanomethylene (HCNC) and Comparison to the Troublesome Isomer Cyanomethylene (HCCN),"  Kellogg, C. B.; Galbraith, J. M.; Fowler, J. E.; Schaefer, H. F. J. Chem. Phys., 1994, 101, 430. 

24.  "The Vibrational Frequencies of Borane (BH3): a Comparison of High Level Theoretical Results," Galbraith, J. M.; Vacek, G.; Scheafer, H. F. J. Mol. Struct. (THEOCHEM) 1993, 300, 281. 

25.  "ClF2:  Structure and Infrared Spectra of a Weakly Bound Triatomic Molecule," Galbraith, J. M.; Vacek, G.; Scheafer, H. F. J. Chem. Phys. 1993, 98, 8051. 

26.  "Elemental Concentrations of Chinese Rock Standards GSD 1-6:  A Comparison with the Certificate Values," Bower, N. W.; Lewis, C. M.; Galbraith, J. M.; Luedemann, G. Geostandards Newsletter  1993, 17, 117.  

Research Interests:

Theoretical aspects of chemical bonding through computational modeling.

After over one hundred years of intensive study, questions still remain surrounding the precise nature of the chemical bond.  My research uses computers to solve the mathematical equations of Quantum Mechanics in order to understand chemical bonding.  By focusing on small molecules, I can make the fewest approximations necessary in examining the forces holding atoms together in molecules.  To this end, I mainly use Valence Bond theory because of the clear conceptual picture of bonding that it provides. This is fundamental research that is ideally suited for working with undergraduates at a place like Marist College.  While it is true that the theoretical details are beyond the scope of most undergraduates, students can run calculations and analyze data after a first year Chemistry course.  Furthermore, chemical bonding research provides students with a solid foundation no matter what area of Chemistry they pursue. My students have presented our work as peer reviewed publications in top-tier Chemistry journals such as The Journal of Physical Chemistry A and Molecular Physics and as posters at American Chemical Society meetings, Mercury Conferences on Computational Chemistry, and the 7th Molecular Quantum Mechanics Conference.  They have gone on to PhD programs at Yale University, the Georgia Institute of Technology, and Indiana University and we continue to collaborate to this day.

Conferences & Workshops:

1. 7th Molecular Quantum Mechanics Conference, Lugano, Switzerland June 2-7 2013.

2. Mid-Hudson ACS Undergraduate Research Symposium, SUNY New Paltz, April 19, 2013.

3. American Chemical Society Spring Meeting, San Diego, CA March 25-28 2012.

4. 12th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Bard College, Annandale-On-Hudson, NY, April 2011.

5. Molecular Quantum Mechanics: Methylene to DNA and Beyond, The University of California Berkeley, CA, May 2010.

6. 11th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Bard College, Annandale-On-Hudson, NY, April 2010.

7. The Symposium of the Lise Meitner-Minerva Center, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, November 2008.

8. 9th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. August 2010.

9. 8th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. August 2009

10. The Symposium of the Lise Meitner-Minerva Center, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, November 2008. (session chair)

11. 6th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2007.

12. 5th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2006.

13. 7th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2006.

14. 231st ACS National Meeting , Atlanta Georgia, March 2006.

15. 4th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2005.

16. National Conference of Undergraduate Research, Lexington, VA, April 2005.

15.  Leadership in Building an Interdisciplinary STEM Learning Environment, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York, March 4-6 2005.

16.  Molecular Quantum Mechanics: The No Nonsense Path to Progress, Cambridge University, July 2004.

17.  5th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2004.

18. 58th Eastern Colleges Science Conference, Manhattan College, April 2004.

19. 2004 ACS Leaders Conference, New Orleans, LA, February, 2004.

20. 2nd MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2003.

21. Council of Undergraduate Research Proposal Writing Institute. Wooster College, Wooster, New York, July 2003.

22. 57th Eastern Colleges Science Conference, Ithaca College, Ithaca,NY, April 2003.

23. The Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2003.

24. 1st MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2002.

25. NSF Molecular Modeling Workshop, University of California Riverside, Riverside California. June 2002.

26. Project Kaleidoscope 2002 Summer Institute, Williamsburg Virginia. June 2002.

27. The Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, SUNY New Paltz, New Paltz, NY, April 2002.

Affiliations:

American Chemical Society (Physical Chemistry Division)

Editorial board ISRN Physical Chemistry

Presentations:

1. “The Effect of Orbital Type and Active Space Size on Valence Bond Structure Weights and Bond Dissociation Energies”, John Morrison Galbraith* Andrew James, Coleen Nemes, poster presentation, 7th Molecular Quantum Mechanics Conference, Lugano, Switzerland June 2-7 2013.

2. “Valence Bond Theory Don’t Call it a Comeback: Some Current and Future Research”  The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, May 2011. (invited lecture)

3. “Valence Bond Theory Don’t Call it a Comeback: Some Current and Future Research”  The Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, May 2011. (invited lecture)

4. “Valence Bond Theory Don’t Call it a Comeback: Some Current and Future Research”  Yale University, New Haven, CT, March 2011. (invited lecture)

5. “The Effect of Orbital Type and Active Space Size on Valence Bond Structure Weights and Bond Disscociation Energies,  Molecular Quantum Mechanics: Methylene to DNA and Beyond, Berkeley, CA, May 2010. (session chair, poster)

6. “What I Did on my Summer Vacation: Chemical Bonding Theory and Large Molecule VB”, Marist College, Poughkeepsit, NY, November 2008.

7. “The Effect of Orbital Type and Active Space Size on Valence Bond Structure Weights and Bond Disscociation Energies”, The Symposium of the Lise Meitner-Minerva Center, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel, November 2008. (session chair, poster)

8. “A Valence Bond Description of Coordinate Covalent Bonding”, Molecular Quantum Mechanics: The No Nonsense Path to Progress, Cambridge University, July 2004 (poster)

9. “The Nature of the Chemical Bond: The Legacy of Linus Pauling in the Age of Computational Chemistry” Mid Hudson section of the American Chemical Society, Chemistry Seminar: Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, February 26, 2004.

10. “Chemistry Without Chemicals: Using Computers to do my Lab Work” Chemistry Seminar:  SUNY Purchase, Purchase, NY, April 2003.

11. “The Mathematics of Chemistry II  Gas Phase Reaction Dynamics: You Can’t See the Molecules So I Will Show You the Math” Marist College Mathematics Seminar, Marist College, Poughkeepsie NY, November 2002

12.  “Don’t Tell My Mother I do VB, She Thinks I’m a Theorist” Colorado College Chemistry Seminar, The Colorado College, Colorado Springs CO, October 2002.

13. “Don’t Tell My Mother I do VB, She Thinks I’m a Theorist” Marist College Chemistry Seminar, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, October 2002.

14.  “The Mathematics of Chemistry:  Using Computers to do my Dirty Work” Marist College Mathematics Seminar, Marist College, Poughkeepsie NY, November 2001

15. “p-Bonding in Second and Third Row Molecules: Testing the strength of Linus’s Blanket” Fifth World Association of Theoretically Oriented Chemists.  Imperial College, London, England, August 1-6 1999.

16.  "Counterintuitive Valance Bond Configuration mixing in Transition Metal Hydride Cations." International Confrence on Reactive Intermediates and Reaction Mechanisms. Ascona, Switzerland, July 1998.

17.  "A Valence Bond Description of Transition Metal Hydride Cations." Binational Italian-Israeli Confrence on Physical Organic Chemistry, Kibbutz Maale Hachmisha, Israel, June 1998.

18.  "Hydrogen Bridging in Molecules Containing Atoms beyond the First Row." 9th International Congress of Quantum Chemistry, Emory University,  Atlanta Georgia, USA, June 1997.

19.  "Cl3: The Potential Energy Hypersurface of a Weakly Bound Triatomic Molecule." Structural and Mechanistic Organic Chemistry: An International Confrence in Honor of Professor Norman L. Allinger, The University of Georgia, Athens Georgia, USA, June 1997.

20.  "Cl3: The Potential Energy Hypersurface of a Weakly Bound Triatomic Molecule." Twenty-Sixth Southeastern Theoretical Chemistry Association Confrence, University of Alabama, Birmingham Alabama, USA, May 1997.

21.  "Concerning the Applicability of Density Functional Methods to Atomic and Molecular Negative Ions," Twenty-Fifth Southeastern Theoretical Chemistry Association Confrence, Flordia State University, Tallahassee Flordia, USA, May 1996.

22.  "Minor Programs that make a Major Difference:  Developements and Applications," Second Computational Chemistry Workshop, Hilton Head South Carolina, USA, May 1996.

23.  "The Nitrosyl Azide (N4O) Potential Energy Hypersurface: A High Energy-Density Boom or Bust?," Molecular Quantum Mechanics: Methods and Applications, St. Cathrines College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, September 1995.

24.  "Hyrdogen Bridging in ABH2 (A, B =, Al, Si, Ga, Ge): An MO Approach," First Computational Chemistry Workshop, Hilton Head South Carolina, USA, May 1995.

25.  "Nitrosyl Azide (N4O): Exploring the Isomers on a Difficult Potential Energy Hypersurface," From Methylene to Protiens and Beyond - A Quarter Century of Scientific Computation, Atlanta Georgia, USA, June 1994.

26. "Nitrosyl Azide (N4O): Exploring the Isomers on a Difficult Potential Energy Hypersurface," Twenty-Third Southeastern Theoretical Chemistry Association Confrence, Vanderbilt University, Nashville Tennessee, USA, May 1994.

Mentored student presentations:

1. “A Study of Charge-Shift Bonding Using Valence Bond Theory”, Andrew M. James* and John Morrison Galbraith, poster presentaion, 7th Molecular Quantum Mechanics Conference, Lugano, Switzerland June 2-7 2013.

2. “A Study of Charge-Shift Bonding Using Valence Bond Theory”, Andrew M. James* and John Morrison Galbraith, oral presentaion, CURSCA, Marist College, April 10, 2013.

3. “A Study of the Hydrogen Bond from a Valence Bond Theory Perspective”, Coleen T. Nemes,* John Morrison Galbraith, poster presentation, CURSCA, Marist College, April 10, 2013.

4. “Modeling the Barrier to Rotation in a C-Shaped Molecule Containing Thiophene-Substituted Quinoxaline Rings”, Andrew James,* John Morrison Galbraith Jocelyn M. Nadeau, poster presentation, Mid-Hudson ACS Undergraduate Research Symposium, SUNY New Paltz, April 19, 2013.

5. “A Study of the Hydrogen Bond from a Valence Bond Theory Perspective”, Coleen T. Nemes,* John Morrison Galbraith, poster presentation, Mid-Hudson ACS Undergraduate Research Symposium, SUNY New Paltz, April 19, 2013.

6. “A Study of Charge-Shift Bonding Using Valence Bond Theory”, Andrew M. James* and John Morrison Galbraith, poster presentation, American Chemical Society Spring Meeting, San Diego, CA March 25-28 2012.

7.  “High Spin States of Small Transition Metal Clusters: A Computational Study with Density Functional Theory”, Coleen T. Nemes,* John Morrison Galbraith, poster presentation, American Chemical Society Spring Meeting, San Diego, CA March 25-28 2012.

8. “High Spin States of Small Transition Metal Clusters: A Computational Study with Density Functional Theory.” Nemes, C. T.; 10th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA. July 2011.

9. “A Study of Charge-Shift Bonding Using Valence Bond Theory”, James A. M.; Summer 2011, 10th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Bucknell University, Lewisburg, PA.  July 2011.

10. “A Study of Charge-Shift Bonding Using Valence Bond Theory”, McFadden, B.; Spring 2011, 12th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY, April 2011.

11. “A Valence Bond Study of the s and p Bond Systems of Transition Metal Dioxygen Dications”, Ramirez, L.; Dumas, E.; Galbraith, J. M., 6th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2007.

12. “A Computational Study of Metalloporphyrin-Oxygen Systems”,  Lennartz, J. M.; Galbraith, J. M., 8th  Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Vassar College, April 19, 2007;

13. “A Valence Bond Interpretation of 4 Electeron, 3 Center p Systems”, DeBlase, A.; Galbraith, J. M., 8th  Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Vassar College, April 19, 2007;

14. “A Computational Study of Metalloporphyrin-Oxygen Systems”,  Lennartz, J. M.; Galbraith, J. M., CURSCA, Marist College, April 26, 2007.

15. “A Valence Bond Interpretation of 4 Electeron, 3 Center p Systems”, DeBlase, A.; Galbraith, J. M., CURSCA, Marist College, April 26, 2007.

16. “A Computational Study of Metalloporphyrin-Oxygen Systems”,  Lennartz, J. M.; Galbraith, J. M., American Chemical Society Spring National meeting,  Chicago, March 28-30 2007.

17. “A Valence Bond Interpretation of 4 Electeron, 3 Center p Systems”, DeBlase, A.; Galbraith, J. M., American Chemical Society Spring National meeting,  Chicago, March 28-30 2007.

18. “A Computational Study of Metalloporphyrin-Oxygen Systems”,  Lennartz, J. M.; Galbraith, J. M., 5th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2006.

19. “A Valence Bond Interpretation of 4 Electeron, 3 Center p Systems”, DeBlase, A.; Galbraith, J. M., 5th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2006.

20. “Alternate Mechanisms for the Formation of Volatile Selenium Species”, Takatani, T. R.; Galbraith, J. M., 7th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2006.

21. “Qualitative Investigation of Copper Binding Sites in ATP7B Using A Computational Method for Metal-Binding Macromolecules”, Donnegan, R. J.; Galbraith, J. M., 7th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2006.

22. “Alternate Mechanisms for the Formation of Volatile Selenium Species”, Takatani, T. R.; Galbraith, J. M., 231st ACS National Meeting , Atlanta Georgia, March 2006.

16. “Qualitative Investigation of Copper Binding Sites in ATP7B Using A Computational Method for Metal-Binding Macromolecules”, Donnegan, R. J.; Galbraith, J. M., 4th MERCURY Conference in Computational Chemistry, Hamilton College, Clinton New York. July 2005.

23. “Alternate Mechanisms for the Formation of Volatile Selenium Species”, Takatani, T. R.; Galbraith, J. M., National Conference of Undergraduate Research, Lexington, VA, April 2005.

24. “Quantum Chemical study of Silicon Carbide Surface Metallization” Ferguson, G.; Halls, M. D.; Raghavachari, K; Galbraith, J. M., 5th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2004.

25. “MD Simulation of Argon Bombardment with Nitrogen Diatom Adsorbed to Silicon Surface”, Palombo, C. E.; Galbraith, J. M., 5th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2004.

26. “Quantum Chemical study of Silicon Carbide Surface Metallization” Ferguson, G.; Halls, M. D.; Raghavachari, K; Galbraith, J. M., 58th Eastern Colleges Science Conference, Manhattan College, April 2004.

27. “MD Simulation of Argon Bombardment with Nitrogen Diatom Adsorbed to Silicon Surface”, Palombo, C. E.; Galbraith, J. M., 58th Eastern Colleges Science Conference, Manhattan College, April 2004.

28. “Rare Bonding:  Quadruple Bonds in Me2Cl8x- Complexes”  Ferguson, G; Galbraith, J. M., 57th Eastern Colleges Science Conference, Ithica College, April 2003.

29. “Rare Bonding:  Quadruple Bonds in Me2Cl8x- Complexes”  Ferguson, G; Galbraith, J. M., 4th Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, Marist College, Poughkeepsie, NY, April 2003.

30. “A Valence Bond Study of Four Electron Three Orbital p Systems:  A Model of the FeO2 Bond in Heme”, Licata, M; Galbraith, J. M. 3rd Mid-Hudson Section of the American Chemical Society Undergraduate Research Symposium, SUNY New Paltz, New Paltz, NY, April 2002.