Transition to the Workplace
Questions to Consider When Determining Accommodation Solutions
Issues Related to the Individual
- What are the individual's job duties?
- What job duties are problematic?
- Exactly what does the person have trouble doing within the problematic area? (One must be very specific here.)
Examples of pinpointing:
- Spelling problems? (this may be an indicator of LD) Is it due to reversals?
- Visual or auditory deficits?
- Reading problems? Is it due to a visual or auditory discrimination difficulty?
- Memory deficits? Is this due to lack of attention, the inability to focus, or the inability to screen out extraneous stimuli, or
- Short-term/long-term memory deficits?
- What are the neurological deficits? (One may have to do some educated guessing here.)
- How can the deficit be compensated? (This is where an accommodation(s) will be considered.)
General Issues Related to the Workplace
- What is the physical layout of the workplace?
- What specific equipment is utilized in the work setting?
- What kind of lighting is used and what is the noise level in the workplace?
- Is the workplace visually distracting, auditorily distracting?
- How can the physical environment of the workplace be changed so that the worker will be able to perform his/her job duties?
- Can the job duties be restructured so that the worker can perform the duties that are easier for them?
- What assistive devices could be used that will help the individual perform his/her job duties?
Some Examples of Accommodations From the ADA Technical Assistance Manual
(Title 1, Section 3)
The statute and EEOC's regulations provide examples of common types of reasonable accommodation that an employer may be required to provide, but other accommodations may be appropriate for particular situations. Accommodations are to be considered on a case-by-case basis. Also, a reasonable accommodation need not be the best accommodation available, as long as it is effective for the situation.
Accommodations may include:
- Making facilities readily accessible to and usable by an individual with a disability;
- Restructuring a job by reallocating or redistributing marginal job functions;
- Altering when or how an essential job function is performed;
- Part-time or modified work schedules;
- Obtaining or modifying equipment or devices;
- Modifying examinations, training materials or policies;
- Providing qualified readers and interpreters;
- Reassignment to a vacant position;
- Permitting use of accrued paid leave or unpaid leave for necessary treatment;
- Providing reserved parking for a person with a mobility impairment;
- Allowing an employee to provide equipment or devices that an employer is not required to provide.
Sample Accommodation Solutions Specific for Persons With Learning Disabilities and/or Attention Deficit Disorder
Deficits in Reading
- Recording for the Blind - books on tape/CD (persons with LD qualify for this service)
- Tape-recorded directives, messages, materials
- Reading machines
- Screen reading software for computer use
- Colored mylar templates for reading and scanning
- Color-coded manuals, outlines, maps
- Scanners which allow the user to enter hard copies into the computer system
Deficits in Writing
- Personal computers/laptop computers
- Voice output software that highlights and reads (via a speech synthesizer) what has been keyed into the computer
- Voice input software which recognizes the user's voice and changes it to text on the computer screen
- Locator dots for identification of letters/numbers on the keyboard
- Word processing software
- Spell checking software/electronic spell checkers
- Software with highlighting capabilities
- Grammar checking software
- Word prediction software
- Form producing software that computerizes order form, claim forms, applications, credit histories, equation and formula fields
- Carbonless note taking systems
Deficits in Mathematics
- Fractional, decimal, statistical, scientific calculators
- Talking calculators
- Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) software for arithmetic/mathematics
- Computer Assisted Design (CAD) software for architecture/engineering
- Large display screens for calculators, adding machines
- Colored mylar templates, colored coding for maintaining ledger columns
Deficits in Organizational Skills, Memory and Time Management
- Day Planners
- Electronic organizers/schedulers
- Software organizers with/without highlighting capabilities
- LCD watches, data bank watches, timers, counters, alarms
- Personal Information Managers (PIMS)
- Use of electronic mail (Email) for memory deficits
Managing the Physical Environment
- Room enclosures/cubicles to reduce auditory and visual distractions
- A private office space
- Use of "white noise" by using a sound soother/environmental sound machine
- Use of colored files
- Mapping of the workspace/office
Questions To Consider When Determining Accommodation Solutions
To Tell or Not To Tell - That is the Question? Whether or Not to Tell Your Employer About Your LD/ADD
Deciding whether or not to reveal your learning disability/ADD may be one of the most difficult decisions you will ever have to make. You may worry about the potential pitfalls of revealing your disability (e.g. not getting hired, what they will think of you, not being able to get a promotion). Therefore, revealing your LD/ADD is always a matter of personal choice. It is totally up to you how much information you share, who you share it with and how you reveal it.
One concern you may have is deciding when to tell your employer about your LD/ADD. Should you tell before the interview, during the interview or after you have been hired? To help you make your decision, here are some positives and negatives for each option.
Positives of Revealing Your LD/ADD Before the Interview
- It is possible your employer is an equal rights employer who is under an employment equity quota which may help your chances of getting an interview.
- If you are called for an interview, you will know that your prospective employer has some understanding of your disability.
- You may feel less nervous about the approaching interview.
Negatives of Revealing Your LD/ADD Before the Interview
Revealing your LD/AADD to a prospective employer on your resume might limit your employment prospects because:
- You may not be selected for an interview over the competition.
- Your employer may focus solely on the fact that your have LD/ADD rather than paying attention to the strengths and skills mentioned in your resume. Without being there in person, you will be unable to prove your competency by explaining your abilities and the ways your successfully compensate for your LD/ADD.
Positives Of Revealing Your LD/ADD During the Interview
- You are being totally honest with your employer.
- You will be able to judge how understanding your employer is about your LD/ADD and gauge their willingness to accommodate your needs. These observations will help you decide whether to accept a job offer or not.
- If your employer is an equal rights employer who is under an employment equity quota, it may help your chances of being hired.
- You may assuage any doubts your employer has about your ability to perform the job by providing concrete examples of how you successfully compensate for your LD/ADD.
- Not having to hide your LD/ADD may allow you to make a better job of selling yourself to a prospective employer.
- You may discover just how understanding and accommodating a prospective employer can be.
- You will be able to request accommodations during the interview itself.
Negatives of Revealing Your LD/ADD During the Interview
- Your employment prospects may be limited by your employer's poor understanding of LD/ADD. He/she may see your disability as a personal weakness which would negatively affect your job performance.
- If you suspect the reason you were not hired is because you revealed your LD/ADD during the interview, there is little recourse under the law because the employer can simply say the there were others more qualified for the job.
- Your LD/ADD could become the focal point of the conversation preventing you from discussing your ability to do the job.
Positives of Revealing Your LD/ADD After Hiring
- By law, your employer cannot fire you because you tell them you have LD/ADD.
- Your employer is legally obligated to provide you with reasonable accommodations to enable you to do your job.
- If you are not provided with reasonable accommodations or believe you were unjustly terminated due to your LD/ADD, you can take legal action.
- You no longer have to deal with the stress of trying to hide your LD/ADD from your employer and other co-workers.
- You may experience enhanced work relationships through the fostering of trust and understanding.
Negatives of Revealing Your LD/ADD After You Have Been Hired
- Your employer may feel like you have been dishonest with him/her by not revealing your LD/ADD before you were hired.
- Your employer and co-workers may show a lack of understanding about your LD/ADD. They may stereotype you as lazy, dumb, slow, etc.
- Your employer and/or co-workers may doubt your ability to perform the job creating a poor work environment.
- You may have trouble getting a promotion, even though your work warrants it.
- Your employer may fail to acknowledge reasonable requests for accommodations.
- In extreme cases, your employer may terminate your employment, although you have legal recourse.
To Disclose or Not to Disclose
Use the following chart as guidance for when a student with an invisible disability asks you whether or not to disclose that disability to a potential employer. Show the student the pros and cons of when to make the disclosures, but do not make the decision for the student.
|Time of Disclosure||Reasons for Disclosing||Reasons for Not Disclosing|
|At the time of application||
|During the interview process||
|When you receive a job offer||
|When you start work||
|If problems arise at work||